Printing made by sensitizing the surface of a printing plate with no elevation or depression and creating paint receptive sections. There is no height difference on the printing surface in this method where zinc, aluminum, copper and stone are used.
a) Stone Printing (Lithography): A stone extracted mainly in Germany and Switzerland is used for image transfer. The artist draws a pattern on cleansed stone with grease pen and ink. In this technique, which affords the opportunity to create the desired effect, after the work dries, a liquid of aqueous acacia gum-nitric acid mixture is applied. Paint-retaining and paint-repellent surfaces on the stone are created with the help of water. The paint, which is fed with a roller, clings to the painted, drawn or envisaged areas and is transferred by the press. A separate stone mold is prepared for each color in lithography. Until offset developed, this technique was used in printing houses for a substantial period of time with high circulation output of works. It is a technique widely used by artists today.
b) Offset Printing (Offset-Litho): It is an advanced form of lithography. Again, it is based on oil and water. In this form, stone is replaced by zinc, aluminum, copper, etc. metal surfaces. The artist draws and paints the image directly on the metal and uses this technique as in lithography. Today, original prints are produced with this technique, while photographic methods can also be applied in this technique.